The Need for Growth
City Expansion and Smart Considerations
Despite the high risk of exposure to coastal hazards of increasing intensity and frequency, most of the world's populations, economic activities, and infrastructure continue to be located along the coast. In many cases (see Module 9), retreat and abandonment of high-risk areas is simply not an option. Already growing populations, augmented by immigration, in major coastal cities requires thoughtful planning to protect against flooding without hindering the many valuable ecological functions within the coastal zone. The following sections detail several smart building measures that have satisfied the need for growth in coastal zones.