EARTH 520
Plate Tectonics and People

Hugo Benioff

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<h3><span style="font-size:10px;">by Joanna Strachan</span></h3>
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<h3><img alt="" class="caldora-image-content" height="510" src="http://caltech.discoverygarden.ca/islandora/object/ct1%3A1856/datastream... width="521"></h3>
<h3>Hugo Benioff in 1964  <span style="font-size:9px;"><a href="http://caltech.discoverygarden.ca/islandora/object/ct1%3A1856">h...
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<h3>Biographical Information</h3>
<p>Hugo Benioff (1899-1968) was born in Los Angeles, California.  He was born to immigrant parents, his father from Russian and his mother from Sweden.  <span style="line-height: 15.6px;">Benioff graduated from Pomona College in 1921 and earned his Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology in 1935.  Having switched his studies from astronomy to seismology, Benioff was able to land a position in 1924 as a physicist with the seismological program with the Carnegie Institute in Pasadena.  Working during the night and sleeping during the day did not appeal to him so he decided to switch over to seismology.  The Carnegie Institute was to later reform as the California Institute of Technology and was where Hugo Benioff made his greatest contributions to science.  </span></p>
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<h3>Specific contributions to the theory of plate tectonics and/or our modern view of the solid Earth</h3>
<p>Hugo Benioff is known for creating various instruments including the vertical seismometer shown below.  This seismometer the vertical movement of the earth because the mass portion of the seismometer hanging from the springs is stationary while the rest of the machine moves along with the ground during an earthquake.  Benioff's seismometer also used magnets to give a more precise measurement of the seismic waves it detected.</p>
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<p> <img alt="" class="caldora-image-content" height="368" src="http://caltech.discoverygarden.ca/islandora/object/ct1%3A5959/datastream... width="249"></p>
<p>Benioff's vertical seismometer.  <a href="http://caltech.discoverygarden.ca/islandora/object/ct1%3A5959">C... Archives</a></p>
<p><img src="http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/seismology/images/keep1a.gif&quo...
<p>A visual showing the basic difference between a vertical and horizontal seismograph.  <a href="http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/seismology/keeping_track.php&quo...
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<h3>Other important scientific contributions</h3>
<p><span style="line-height: 15.6px;">In 1949 Hugo Benioff developed a way to identify a series of earthquakes as having occurred along a single subducting tectonic plate.  </span>This zone travels along the plane where the subducting plate is plunging down into the mantle.  Typically the Benioff zone is at an angle of between 30 and 60 degrees.</p>
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<p><img src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/Benioff_zone_e... style="font-size: 1em; line-height: 1.3;"></p>
<p>The red x's on this illustration show the location of the Benioff Zone.  <a href="http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/glossary/?term=Benioff%20zone">...
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<p><img src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8c/Kuril_Benioff_...
<p>A plot showing the seismic activity along the Kuril Islands fault zone.  <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wadati%E2%80%93Benioff_zone">Wikip...
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<h3>Other cool stuff you should know</h3>
<p>Benioff created musical instruments made of mostly metal with no front or back casing and in forms that were different from the traditional designs.  The violin and cello were electric and plugged into a type of speaker (or amp).  A news article from the time stated that the sound quality from these instruments was of a high quality.</p>
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<p><img alt="Image result for hugo benioff musical instruments" 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"></p>
<p>A violin Benioff created where he replaced many of the traditionally wood parts of the violin with aluminum.  <a href="https://www.google.com/search?q=hugo+benioff+musical+instruments&amp... style="font-size: 1em; line-height: 1.3;">Google Images</a></p>
<p> </p>
<p> </p>
<p><img src="http://www.digitalviolin.com/gif/Benioff%20Cello%20Photo.gif">&l...
<p>Alternative design for a Cello that Benioff created.   <a href="https://www.google.com/search?q=hugo+benioff+musical+instruments&amp... style="font-size: 1em; line-height: 1.3;">Google Images</a></p>
<p> </p>
<h3>Bibliography</h3>
<p>CALTECH. (n.d.). California Institute of Technology Image Archive: Digital Collections at CALTECH: The<span style="font-size: 1em; line-height: 1.3;"> Image Archive. Retrieved   </span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: 1em; line-height: 1.3;">            September 15, 2015 from  </span><a href="http://caltech.discoverygarden.ca/" style="font-size: 1em; line-height: 1.3;" target="_blank">http://caltech.discoverygarden.ca/</a></p>
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