Types of Coal
There are four basic varieties of coal: lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous, and anthracite. All are formed from ancient plant material. Variations are the result of different geologic forces which affect the carbon content and heating value--also the dollar value!
- Lignite: Sometimes called "brown coal," this is a brownish-black coal with generally high moisture and ash content and lower heating value. It is the geologically youngest and lowest ranked coal. It contains 25 to 35 percent carbon and has the lowest heating value, 4,000 to 8,300 Btus per pound.
- Sub-bituminous: A dull black coal, it contains about 35 to 45 percent carbon and has a heating value of 8,300 to 11,500 Btus per pound. It is used primarily for generating electricity and for space heating.
- Bituminous: Sometimes called "soft coal," this coal is 45 to 86 percent carbon, softer than anthracite, and has a heat content between 10,500 and 14,000 Btus per pound.
- Anthracite: Sometimes called "hard coal," this coal is 86 to 97 percent carbon and has the highest energy content of all coals, nearly 15,000 Btus per pound.
How does the World Use Coal?
To Read Now
Visit the World Energy Council and see the publication "World Energy Resources 2016." You can download your own copy, or access the copy on Canvas, under the Lesson 6 tab. This is the most recent full energy report from this organization, who is an excellent source of information for global energy markets. It provides a solid understanding of the development of the global coal market in the recent past.
Please read the following in the Introduction:
- Coal summary, pp. 12 - 13 (This is pp. 14 - 15 on the navigation bar at the top)
In the main body of the report (this portion starts after the Introduction, which ends on p. 49) read:
- Generation technologies, pp. 11 - 14 (pp. 53 - 56 on the navigation bar at the top)
- China and India, pp. 17 - 21 (pp. 59 - 63 on the navigation bar)
- United States and Socio-economics, pp. 31 - 36 (pp. 73 - 78 on the navigation bar)
As you read this, it will help to remember the international definition used by the United Nations for proved recoverable reserves, the quantity within the proved amount in place that can be recovered in the future under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology. (World Energy Council)
To Read Now
Open the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) International Energy Outlook 2016
- Open the section "Coal"
- Read the subsections entitled "World coal trade" and "World coal reserves"
As you read this, it will help to remember that the IEO2016 Reference case is a forward-looking scenario (through 2040), which does not incorporate prospective legislation or policies that might affect energy markets, including prospective greenhouse gas reduction policies.
To Read Now
The global energy market is a dynamic place. This is but one reason that it is exciting to be in the energy field (hopefully that's not just me!). Read the following to get an understanding for the most recent trends in the global coal market.
- "Global Coal Use to Stall as India Props Up Growth, IEA Says." Bloomberg Markets, December 2016.
- Slides 36 and 37 of BP's 2017 Energy Outlook presentation. BP, 2016
- BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2016: Coal.
Both of the first two documents above documents are excellent, loaded with analysis and details far beyond the breadth and depth of this lesson. I've chosen selections carefully that I believe best support the objectives of this lesson and the focus of this course. I encourage you to please keep these important publications and organizations (including the IEA and BP) in mind, however, as they be helpful to you in other courses, research, and your professional life--now and in the future!