EME 444
Global Energy Enterprise

Energy Supply and Demand

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To Read Now

Visit the European Commission's Energy Statistics Page:

  • Click on "Energy statistical pocketbook," then download the "Statistical Pocketbook 2017." Browse through Section 1.2 - Energy in the EU (Overview) and Section 1.3 (EU 2020 Targets).

It will help to know that an Mtoe is a megatonne of oil equivalent. It represents the amount of energy released from burning one million tonnes of crude oil. In OECD/IEA tabulations, 1 Mtoe is equal to 4.1868 x 1016 J and is used as the general unit to describe the energy content of all fuels. (APS Physics)

The International Energy Agency (IEA)

was initially designed to help countries co-ordinate a collective response to major disruptions in the supply of oil, such as the crisis of 1973/4. While this remains a key aspect of its work, the IEA has evolved and expanded significantly.

The IEA examines the full spectrum of energy issues including oil, gas and coal supply and demand, renewable energy technologies, electricity markets, energy efficiency, access to energy, demand side management and much more. Through its work, the IEA advocates policies that will enhance the reliability, affordability and sustainability of energy in its 29 member countries and beyond.

Today, the IEA is at the heart of global dialogue on energy, providing authoritative analysis through a wide range of publications, including the flagship World Energy Outlook and the IEA Market Reports; data and statistics, such as Key World Energy Statistics and the Monthly Oil Data Service; and a series of training and capacity building workshops, presentations, and resources.

The four main areas of IEA focus are:

  • Energy Security: Promoting diversity, efficiency, flexibility and reliability for all fuels and energy sources;
  • Economic Development: Supporting free markets to foster economic growth and eliminate energy poverty;
  • Environmental Awareness: Analysing policy options to offset the impact of energy production and use on the environment, especially for tackling climate change and air pollution; and
  • Engagement Worldwide: Working closely with partner countries, especially major emerging economies, to find solutions to shared energy and environmental concerns. (IEA: Organisation and structure)

 As noted in a prior lesson, the IEA is a subsidiary of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The IEA is careful to note that they are "an autonomous body within the OECD framework."

Celebrating the 30th anniversary of the International Energy Agency
October 15, 2009: Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, Dr. Henry Kissinger and Nobuo Tanaka, IEA Executive Director at the 35th Anniversary of the IEA. Location: Chateau de La Muette, Paris.

Launched in June 2006, Energy Technology Perspectives is the IEA's leading biennial publication. The series is a response to a request from the G8 in 2005 for guidance on how to achieve a clean, clever, and competitive energy future and how to achieve an 80% reduction in global CO2 emissions by 2050.

Energy Technology Perspectives uses scenarios to evaluate technology and emissions outcomes. The 6º Scenario (6DS)  illustrates what is likely to happen if very little changes from the current trends, and would likely result in an increase of 5.5º C after 2100, and 4º C by the end of this century. The 4º Scenario (4DS) requires significant action toward decarbonization, but would still likely result in a rise of almost 3º C by the end of the century. The 2º C Scenario (2DS) "would give at least a 50% chance of limiting average global temperature increase to 2º C" and "sets the target of cutting energy- and process-related CO2 emissions by almost 60% by 2050" compared to 2020 (source: ETP 2017 data visualization). The IEA used to provide a fascinating graphical scenario builder that allowed provided scenarios not only for the EU, but the rest of the world and select regions within it. You could view the impact of various technologies (e.g., CCS, Renewables, Efficiency, etc.) on targets, download data, and more. Unfortunately, the data visualization tool is behind a paywall now, but the chart below shows the 6DS and the 2DS for the U.S. and the EU, projected to the year 2050. (The IEA does provide a free energy atlas tool that has some interactive charts of country-by-country energy use, energy flows, emissions, and more.)

Emission projections 2050 (6DS vs 2DS) EU 6DS 2 remain steady @ 3.5 US 6DS 2 remain steady @ 5.8 Both US & EU 2DS 2 get down to around 1.2
Figure 10.1: Graphical emissions representation of the IEA's 6DS (top line) vs. the 2DS (bottom line) scenarios. Click on the image to access the data visualization tool.
Credit: International Energy Agency, Energy Technology Perspectives 2016 data visualization

To Read Now

In the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Perspectives 2016, browse through the first two sections of the Executive Summary:

The IEA also publishes a series of "medium-term market reports" each year for a variety of fuels. The 2016 reports for coal, oil, natural gas, and energy efficiency are available.

To Read Now

Read the synopsis of both the IEA's Renewable Energy Medium-Term Market Report 2016 and the Energy Efficiency Market Report 2016. You are welcome to download and read the full reports, but that is not required.