EME 444
Global Energy Enterprise

Energy Supply and Demand


To Read Now

Visit the European Commission's Energy Statistics Page:

  • Click on "Energy statistical pocketbook," then download the "Statistical Pocketbook 2016." Browse through Section 1.2 - Energy in the EU (Overview) and Section 1.3 (EU 2020 Targets).

It will help to know that an Mtoe is a megatonne of oil equivalent. It represents the amount of energy released from burning one million tonnes of crude oil. In OECD/IEA tabulations, 1 Mtoe is equal to 4.1868 x 1016 J and is used as the general unit to describe the energy content of all fuels. (APS Physics)

The International Energy Agency (IEA) is an "autonomous organisation which works to ensure reliable, affordable, and clean energy for its 29 member countries and beyond. Founded in response to the 1973/74 oil crisis, the initial role of the IEA was to help countries coordinate a collective response to major disruptions in oil supply through the release of emergency oil stocks to the markets. While this continues to be a key aspect of its work, the IEA has evolved and expanded to encompass the full mix of energy resources. It is at the heart of global dialogue on energy, providing authoritative and unbiased research, statistics, analysis and recommendations" (IEA: Organisation and structure). As noted in a prior lesson, the IEA is a subsidiary of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The IEA is careful to note that they are "an autonomous body within the OECD framework."

Celebrating the 30th anniversary of the International Energy Agency
October 15, 2009: Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, Dr. Henry Kissinger and Nobuo Tanaka, IEA Executive Director at the 35th Anniversary of the IEA. Location: Chateau de La Muette, Paris.

Launched in June 2006, Energy Technology Perspectives is the IEA's leading biennial publication. The series is a response to a request from the G8 in 2005 for guidance on how to achieve a clean, clever, and competitive energy future and how to achieve an 80% reduction in global CO2 emissions by 2050.

Energy Technology Perspectives uses scenarios to evaluate technology and emissions outcomes. The 6º Scenario (6DS)  illustrates what is likely to happen if very little changes from the current trends, and would likely result in an increase of 5.5º C after 2100, and 4º C by the end of this century. The 4º Scenario (4DS) requires significant action toward decarbonization, but would still likely result in a rise of almost 3º C by the end of the century. The 2º C Scenario (2DS) "would give at least a 50% chance of limiting average global temperature increase to 2º C and "sets the target of cutting energy- and process-related CO2 emissions by almost 60% by 2050" compared to 2020. This fascinating graphical scenario builder provides scenarios not only for the EU, but the rest of the world and select regions within it. You can view the impact of various technologies (e.g., CCS, Renewables, Efficiency, etc.) on targets, download data, and more. The chart below shows the 6DS and the 2DS for the U.S. and the EU, projected to the year 2050.

6DS vs. 2DS policy scenarios - carbon emissions projections to 2050
Graphical emissions representation of the IEA's 6DS (top line) vs. the 2DS (bottom line) scenarios. Click on the image to access the data visualization tool.
Credit: International Energy Agency, Energy Technology Perspectives 2016 data visualization

To Read Now

In the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Perspectives 2016, read the first two sections of the Executive Summary:

  • "COP21 boosted the momentum for accelerating low-carbon technology deployment, but concrete action will need to match ambitions"
  • "Cities are at the heart of the decarbonization effort"

You are welcome to read the rest, but it is not required.

The IEA also publishes a series of "medium-term market reports" each year for a variety of fuels. The 2016 reports for coal, oil, natural gas, and energy efficiency are available.

To Read Now

Read the synopsis of both the IEA's Renewable Energy Medium-Term Market Report 2016 and the Energy Efficiency Market Report 2016. You are welcome to download and read the full reports, but that is not required.