So, what do you do when you load your page in a browser and get...nothing? Thankfully, there are tools that can help pinpoint problems in your code without having to manually search line by line. Let's have a look at a couple of broken pages and how we can determine why they're broken.
- Load this Hello Map example in IE, Firefox, or Chrome. Your browser window should be blank because of an error in the page.
Chrome - click on the menu icon (3 stacked dots to the right of the address bar), then select More Tools > Developer tools > Console.
Firefox - click on the menu icon (3 stacked lines, also in the upper right of the window) and select Developer > Web Console.
IE - 1. From the Tools menu (gear icon), select F12 Developer Tools (or simply hit the F12 key). 2. Click on the Console tab. 3. Reload the page.
You should see one of the following error messages, depending on your browser. (The console may report warnings in addition to errors, in which case you’ll need to skip over the warnings or toggle them off.)
Chrome - Uncaught SyntaxError: Unexpected identifier; the page's name and the line of the error appear to the right of the message (main.js:15, in this case)
Firefox - SyntaxError: missing } after property list; main.js:15:4
IE - Expected '}', File: main.js, Line: 15, Column: 5
Each browser in its own way is reporting that it encountered something unexpected on line 15. If this was your own page, you could have a look at that line in Notepad++ or whatever editor you are using. Let's just look at the source code in the browser in this case.
- Within the Console, click on the main.js link listed next to the error message to view the code being loaded from that file. Depending on the browser you’re using, the code lines may be numbered. The “problem” line may also be highlighted or have the cursor on it.
As is sometimes the case, the problem here can be found just before the flagged line: there is no comma after the setting of the zoom property on line 14. It may seem confusing that the browser is flagging line 15, when the line requiring a fix is line 14, but it actually makes sense if you remember that a property-value setting doesn’t need to be followed by a comma (i.e., when it’s the last one associated with the object). So the browser flags the line where it’s finding something unexpected. (It expects a comma or closing brace after the zoom property.)
- Load the second Hello Map example in IE, Firefox, or Chrome. Again, your browser window should be blank because of an error in the page.
- Using the error checking steps outlined above, you should identify the following error:
Chrome - Uncaught SyntaxError: Unexpected token ); on line 18
Firefox - SyntaxError: expected expression, got ‘)’; on line 18
IE - Syntax error; line 18
Line 18 is a pair of closing parentheses followed by a semi-colon. It’s logical to assume the second parenthesis closes the require statement’s arguments and that the first parenthesis closes some other entity in the code block. However, if you were to look at the code in Notepad++, you would see that the IDE matches the first parenthesis character up with the require arguments and that the second parenthesis has no match. The fact that the second parenthesis isn’t matched up with the opening parenthesis on line 1 indicates a problem. It turns out the first parenthesis shouldn’t be a parenthesis; it should be a closing brace (to go with the opening brace on line 5 defining the beginning of the callback function).
While checking for errors in this way can often be a big help, there are likely to be times when you're unable to identify the problem in your code. Another method for pinpointing problems is to produce some output at strategic points in your code. This could be as simple as an alert() statement that confirms that code execution reached a certain point, like
alert("Finished adding overlays");
You might also use an alert() box to display the contents of a variable or the property of some object:
alert("The coords are: " + pt.latitude() + ", " + pt.longitude());
console.log("The value of i is " + i);
Over years of web development, I have found that these simple debugging strategies usually lead me to finding and fixing my errors.