Additional reading at www.astronomynotes.com
Before returning to retrograde Mars and beginning our discussion of the early attempts to explain this behavior, let's first discuss scientific models. This is terminology that is now being included in state science education standards and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and I want to be quite clear about what I mean when I use the term in this class.
To astronomers and other scientists, “making a model” has a specific meaning: taking into account our knowledge of the laws of science, we construct a mental picture of how something works. We then use this mental model to predict the behavior of the system in the future. If our observations of the real thing and our predictions from our model match, then we have some evidence that our model is a good one. If our observations of the real thing contradict the predictions of our model, then it teaches us that we need to revise our picture to better explain our observations. In many cases, the model is simply an idea—that is, there is no physical representation of it. So, if, when I use the word "model," you picture in your head a 1:200 scale copy of a battleship that you put together as a kid, that is not what is meant here. However, that doesn't preclude us from making a physical representation of the model. So, for example, if you are studying tornadoes, you can build a simulated tornado tube using 2 liter soda bottles filled with water. However, for it to be useful as a scientific model, you would want to use the physical model to try and study aspects of real tornadoes. In modern science, many models are computational in nature—that is, you can write a program that simulates the behavior of a real object or phenomenon, and if the predictions of your computer model match your observations of the real thing, it is a good computer model.
This is also a good time to introduce a statement referred to as Occam’s Razor. This is a simple statement that paraphrased says: If there are two competing models to explain a phenomenon, the simplest is the one most likely to be correct. This concept was taught to me in the following way: if you propose a model, you are only allowed to invoke the Easter Bunny once, but if you have to invoke the Easter Bunny twice (as in “then the Easter Bunny appears and makes this happen"), your model is probably wrong.
Want to learn more?
For more history, see a discussion of Occam's Razor on Wikipedia. I realize that Wikipedia is not always to be considered a trusted resource, but this is a good overview.
What I hope will be made clear in the rest of the course is that in practice science is very non-linear. In fact, as a fairly frequent judge for the "Pennsylvania Junior Academy of Science" (which may be similar to science fairs where you teach), I often complain about their rubric for judging, because they force students to try to approach science in a linear, step-by-step model. Scientists all do the standard steps of the scientific method at some point, however, not necessarily in the order presented in textbooks or in a way that they identify as "Now I am on step 5 of the process", for example. This process is really completed by a community of scientists working on scientific problems separately. Everyone involved in the process is working towards the same goal, but some may contribute observations while others build better models, for example. If you would like to discuss this more, this would be an excellent topic for Piazza!
The Greek's Geocentric model
Traditionally in Astronomy textbooks, the chapter on the topic of the motion of the planets in the sky almost always begins with mention of the ancient Greeks. I will not go into a lot of detail on the lives and accomplishments of Eratosthenes, Aristarchus, Hipparchus, etc., but I will follow tradition, and we will study here the model of the Universe presented by the Greeks. In particular, we will consider the work of Aristotle and Ptolemy, because their model was considered the best explanation for the workings of the solar system for more than 1000 years!
While I will gloss over most of the discoveries of the famous Greek philosophers (or mathematicians or astronomers, whatever you prefer to consider them), I think it is quite important to note that they were able to determine many sophisticated understandings of our Solar System based on their strong grasp of geometry. For example, Eratosthenes is given credit for demonstrating that the Earth is round and for performing the first experiment that resulted in a measurement of the circumference of the Earth.
If you aren't familiar with Eratosthenes' experiment, I encourage you to spend time at the website above and to even consider repeating the experiment if you can find a partner located several hundred miles from your school.
Now, let's return to a discussion of the Greeks' model. Today, we start with our well known laws of physics as the basis of our scientific models. At the time that the Greek model was being developed, those laws were unknown, though, and instead they held firmly to several beliefs that formed the foundation of their model of the solar system. These are:
- the Earth is the center of the universe and it is stationary;
- the planets, the Sun, and the stars revolve around the Earth;
- the circle and the sphere are “perfect” shapes, so all motions in the sky should follow circular paths, which can be attributed to objects being attached to spherical shells;
- objects obeyed the rules of “natural motion,” which for the planets and the stars meant they orbited around the Earth at a uniform speed.
Given this set of rules (in modern scientific language, these would be referred to as the assumptions of the model; however, the Greeks believed these to be laws that could not be altered), the Greeks constructed a model to predict the positions of the planets. They knew about retrograde motions, and, therefore, they also constructed their model in such a way to account for the retrograde motions of the planets. Their model is referred to as the geocentric model because of the Earth’s place at the center.
Our knowledge of the Greek’s Geocentric model comes mostly from the Almagest, which is a book written by Claudius Ptolemy about 500 years after Aristotle’s lifetime. In the Almagest, Ptolemy included tables with the positions of the planets as predicted by his model. If you recall from our previous discussion, the retrograde motions of the planets are very complex; therefore, Ptolemy had to create an equally complex model in order to reproduce these motions. I will quickly summarize things here: Ptolemy’s model did not simply have the planets and the Sun attached to one sphere each, but he had to adopt circles (epicycles) on top of circles (deferents) with the Earth offset from the center. The most complex version of the model was still often in error in its predictions by several degrees, or by an angular distance larger than the diameter of the full Moon.
Want to learn more?
This is an interesting topic I won't describe in any more detail, but if you would like to learn more, there is much more about the Ptolemaic model in most introductory astronomy textbooks, including the online Astronomynotes.com.
There is a faculty member at Florida State who has made animated models of the Ptolemaic system: in the first movie below, you can see how the Moon and Sun were conceptualized to have orbited Earth. In the second movie, you can see how Mercury and the Sun were conceptualized to have orbited Earth.
Recall that the Greeks did rely on mathematical reasoning when conducting experiments and designing their models. You may wonder, in the Greek model, what order were the "planets" out from the Earth, and how were they chosen to be in that order? The order was:
- Earth (unmoving; located at the center)
We will discuss this concept more later, but consider the angular speed of an object on the sky. The faster the angular speed, the larger the angular distance an object will cover in the same amount of time. A simple example is to consider two airplanes on the sky. One is close to you, and the other more distant. If both planes are flying at the same speed in the same direction across your line of sight, the more distant airplane will appear to cover a shorter angular distance on the sky than the nearby plane. So, if you can estimate the angular speed of two objects and if you assume that they are moving at the same real speed and in the same direction, the one that travels the shorter distance on the sky must be the more distant object.
The Greeks used this method to estimate the distance to the planets, and they were able to determine the relative ordering of the planets. The most significant flaw was their assumption of the Earth as the center of all things.