GEOG 892
Geospatial Applications of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)

GEOG 892 Syllabus

PrintPrint

GEOG 892 Syllabus: Geospatial Applications for Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

This syllabus is divided into several sections. You can read it sequentially by scrolling down the length of the document or by clicking on any of the links below to “jump” to a specific section. It is essential that you read the entire document as well as material covered in the Course Orientation. Together these serve as our course "contract."


Instructors

Qassim A. Abdullah, Ph.D., CP, PLS
Lecturer, John A. Dutton e-Education Institute, 
Pennsylvania State University
2217 Earth-Engineering Sciences Building
University Park, PA 16801

  • Office phone: 301-346-7360
  • Course e-mail: Please use the course e-mail system (Inbox in Canvas).
  • Personal e-mail: qaa3@psu.edu
  • Availability: Feel free to call me between the hours of 9:00 AM and 5:00 PM Eastern Time on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday of each week during the semester. If I am not available, please leave a message, and I'll return your call as soon as possible.

Course Overview

Description: Unmanned Aerial Systems are developing aggressively, and many government and non-government agencies are considering acquiring such systems. The acquisition of a system may be the easy part of the entire process of running an UAS. However, selecting the right system and providing details of running and managing the system may prove to be challenging for an ordinary user that does not possess prior knowledge in this field. There is quite a large amount of information now available on the UAS. However, most of such information focuses on either the engineering aspect of the aircraft or its defense applications. Very little information is available on the geo-spatial utilization of a UAS.

Prerequisites: There are no formal prerequisites for graduate students taking this course. However, prospective students should have some working knowledge of the following topics, covered in Geog 480, 482, 483:

  • Photogrammetry and Geographic Information System (GIS)
  • Basic GIS or CAD data processing experience
  • Datums and coordinate systems
  • Maps accuracy standard

This course provides an introduction to the Unmanned Aerial system from the Geo-spatial perspective which includes but is not limited to:

  • sensors and platforms;
  • civilian and remote sensing applications;
  • sensors calibration and boresighting;
  • Operational requirements of the UAS;
  • data processing software;
  • derived digital data products such as ortho-rectified imagery and digital terrain surface;
  • current rules and regulations governing owning and operating a UAS in the United States;
  • concerns surrounding UAS safety, security and privacy issues.

The course is specifically designed for adult professionals and is offered exclusively through the World Campus and the John A. Dutton e-Education Institute of the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences. Geography 892 is one of the courses students may choose as their final course in the Certificate Program in Geographic Information Systems or as an elective in the Master of Geographic Information Systems programs. It can also be taken as a professional development or continuing education experience by individuals who are not enrolled in a Certificate and Degree program. No formal academic prerequisites are listed in order to allow these individuals access to the course; however, prior exposure to remote sensing, topographic mapping, and basic GIS is necessary for a successful learning experience.

Students who register in the course for credit will complete nine lessons with corresponding hands-on assignments, online discussions, and a final project. Throughout the course, students will confront realistic problem scenarios that incorporate such skills and concepts as definition of acquisition system needs, data formats and types, analysis methods, and spatial accuracy requirements. Those who successfully complete the course will be able to define project specifications that include but are not limited to UAS selection, project and data planning and specifications such as accuracy requirements and mission planning, software selection and data processing.


Course Objectives

Upon the completion of this course, students will be able to

  • cultivates students' knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the UAS and data post-processing systems.
  • understand fundamental concepts surrounding operating a UAS such as
    • selecting the right UAS
    • assess it's performance
    • manage resulting products,
    • selecting the appropriate commercially available processing software
    • products accuracy assessment
    • ways and means to produce metric products from UAS
  • understand rules and regulations governing operating a UAS in the United States of America

On the practical side, students develop knowledge about photogrammetric processes and will have the opportunity to use the Pix4D processing software to perform aerial triangulation and produce their own orthos and digital terrain model using imagery collected by UAS.

Students who excel in this course are able to:

  • Assess commercially available UAS and its suitability for the job.
  • Assess commercially available data processing software and its suitability for the job.
  • Describe the basic principles of UAS operation requirements and develop Concept of Operation (CONOP).
  • Assess risks surrounding operating a UAS and propose mitigation for such risks.
  • Design a UAS-based aerial imagery operation.
  • Design a UAS-based flight mission.
  • Evaluate strength and weakness of different phases of the design.
  • Recommend a procedure for sensor calibration.
  • Recognize and recommend potential applications of the UAS for GIS operations.
  • Apply acquired knowledge and critical thinking skills to solve a real-world problem with appropriate UAS acquisition and data processing and analysis methods.
  • Produce geospatial products such as ortho photos and digital terrain models.
  • Advise users on the rules and regulations on operating an UAS.

What will be expected of you?

This course will require a minimum of 5-10 hours of student activity per week. The instructor will poll students during the first week of class to find a weekly time to hold a live class discussion via the Web. The live session is intended to substitute for face-to-face meeting in the classroom and most students enjoy the opportunity to ask questions and hear the instructor's commentary on lesson topics.

Each lesson consists of reading assignments online and in the course textbooks. A mandatory reading quiz tests your comprehension of this material. In the weekly live discussion, your instructor will comment on the results of both the reading quiz and lab (if any) and will give a preview of upcoming material. You are encouraged to ask questions and post comments at any time in the Canvas Discussion Forums, and each student is required to post a minimum of two weekly posts. Those posts can be in the form of an original question or a response to a posted question.

During the course you will be provided with a license for the UAS data processing software, Pix4D. A two hour online training for the software (through skype) will be provided by the software company. By the end of the course, you are expected to to process an imagery dataset and produce a digital ortho mosaic and digital elevation model.

You should get in the habit of checking course email and discussion forums in Canvas on a daily basis. That's where students and instructors share comments, pose questions, and suggest answers.

For a more detailed look at what will be covered in each lesson, please refer to the course content that is part of this syllabus (see "Course Content"). Due dates for assignments and activities will be discussed during the weekly call and will be posted on the Calendar in Canvas.


Required Course Materials

Required Textbooks

Because of the newly introduced topic of UAS for civilian use, there very few published books available on the topic. There is no one textbook that I found in the market that covers both topics of the UAS and the Geospatial applications.Therefore, this course requires the following three textbooks, one of which is offered as an eBook through PSU libraries:

  1. Barnhart, R., Hoffman, S., Marshall, D., and Shappee, E. ed. 2012. Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems, 1st edition. Boca Raton. CRC Press. ISBN ISBN 978-11439835203. This text can be purchased on Amazon.com in Hardcover or as a Kindle eBook.
  2. Fahlstrom, P. and Gleason, T. 2012. Introduction to UAV Systems. 4th edition. United Kingdom. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. ISBN: 9781119978664. This text can be purchased on Amazon.com in Hardcover or as a Kindle eBook.
  3. Wolf, P., DeWitt, B., and Wilkinson, B. 2014. Elements of Photogrammetry with Applications in GIS, 4th edition. McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 978-0071761116. This text can be purchased on Amazon.com in Hardcover or as a Kindle eBook.

Recommended Additional Materials:

  • Campbell, J.B. 2007. Introduction to Remote Sensing. 4th edition. The Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1606230749.
  • Abdullah, Q. A., Mapping Matters. A monthly column published in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing journal. (www.asprs.org/Mapping-Matters.html)

Using the Library

Just like on-campus students, as a Penn State student, you have a wealth of library resources available to you!

As a registered user of Penn State Libraries, you can...

  • search for journal articles (many are even immediately available in full-text);
  • request articles that aren't available in full-text and have them delivered electronically;
  • borrow books and other materials and have them delivered to your doorstep;
  • access materials that your instructor has put on Electronic Reserve;
  • talk to reference librarians in real time using chat, phone, and e-mail;
  • ...and much more!

To register with the Libraries, and to learn more about their services, see the Library Information for Off-Campus Users.


Weekly Assignments and Grading

Students earn grades that reflect the extent to which they achieve the learning objectives listed above. Opportunities to demonstrate learning include:

  • 9 online quizzes (30%)
  • 10 activities including online discussions or reports development (45%)
  • 1 final project and presentation (25%)

Grades and deadlines for quizzes are given in the following table:

Quizzes Grading and Due Dates
Quiz # Lesson # Due Date Points
1 1 End of 2nd week 2.5
2 2 End of 2nd week 2.5
3 3 End of 3rd week 2.5
4 4 End of 4th week 2.5
5 5 End of 5th week 2.5
6 6 End of 6th week 2.5
7 7 End of 7th week 2.5
8 8 End of 8th week 2.5
9 9 End of 10th week 10
Total Grades 30%

Grades and deadlines for assignments and activities are given in the following table:

# Lesson/section Title Due Date Points
Assignments Grading and Due Dates
1 1.4 Agreements and Differences in UAS Classification End of week 2 3
2 1.6 SWOT Analysis End of week 3 3
3 2.7 Human Element of UAS End of week 3 3
4 3.3 CONOP and Risk Assessment Analysis for UAS End of week 5 7
5 4.6 Product Generation using UAS imagery in Pix4D Exercise 1 End of week 6 5
6 5.5 FAA Roadmap End of week 6 3
7 6.2 Differences between the rules and regulations governing the operation of a model aircraft End of week 7 3
8 6.5 Certificate of Authorization (COA) draft End of week 8 7
9 8 Product Generation using UAS imagery in Pix4D Exercise 2 End of week 8 8
10 10.0 UAS and Ethics End of week 10 3
      Total 45%

Grades Scale:

Letter grades will be based on the following percentages (percentages refer to the proportion of all possible points earned by the student):

Letter Grades and Corresponding Percentages
Grade Percent
A 94% to 100%
A- 90% to 94%
B+ 87% to 90%
B 84% to 87%
B- 80% to 84%
C+ 77% to 80%
C 74% to 77%
C- 70% to 74%
D+ 67% to 70%
D 64% to 67%
D- 61% to 64%
F 0% to 61%

Class participation will be considered in grading for those whose final course grade is close to the next letter grade. Extra credit opportunities will be provided by the instructor from time to time during the course. In order to qualify for use of extra credit points in calculation of the final grade, the student must submit ALL lesson quizzes, hands-on activities, discussions, and final project deliverables. Exceptions to the extra credit policy may be granted by the instructor on a case-by-case basis in special circumstances.

To view your grades during the semester you need to do the following:

  1. Log into Canvas and click on this course
  2. Click on the Grades tab in the Navigation Bar

GEOG 892 Course Schedule

image Printable Schedule

As the schedule may change, please be sure to check it often! If you have a question about when something is due, ask your instructors! NOTE: If at any time you cannot get a reading, e-mail an instructor immediately, and we can send a pdf. We prefer to link to the readings, but links change all the time!

Orientation
Date: Week 0
Objectives: By the end of the orientation, you will be able to:
  • know the structure of GEOG 892
  • comprehend how to use Canvas, Penn State's course management system
  • know the technical requirements for GEOG 892
  • understand how to succeed in this course
  • find out where to get course assistance if you need it
Readings:
  • Orientation lesson material
Assignments:
  1. Personalize your Canvas space.
  2. Forward your Canvas e-mail.
  3. Register with the University Libraries.
  4. Log in to this website.
  5. Introduce yourself and meet the rest of the class.

 

Lesson 1: Introduction to the Unmanned Aerial System
Date: Week 1
Objectives: At the successful completion of this lesson you should be able to:
  • Describe the historical evolution of the UAS
  • Recognize the defense contribution to the UAS development
  • Recognize the civilian contribution to the UAS development
  • Understand the current state of the UAS development
  • Describe the objectives beyond the use of the UAS
  • Classify different UAS according to their make and characteristics
  • Describe the different classes of the UAS
Readings:

Readings are identified and should be completed as you work through the lesson.

Assignments:
  1. Read the paper “remotesensing-04-01671.pdf”. Highlight agreements and differences in the UAS classifications system between the one adopted in the paper and the one given in this lesson. Post your opinion on the discussion board. Respond to at least one posting from your peers. (4 points)
  2. Lesson 1 Quiz
  3. Lesson 1 Discussion Activity
  4. Read Final Project details

 

Lesson 2: Unmanned Aerial System Elements
Date: Week 2
Objectives: At the successful completion of this lesson you should be able to:
  • Describe and identify the different elements of an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)
  • Understand the functionality of each element making the UAS
  • Explain how the different elements of a UAS complement each other
  • Understand the basics in regards to an aerial vehicle design
  • Describe different payloads
  • Identify the different miniaturized sensors used for remote sensing
  • Understand the fundamentals of digital cameras and LiDAR
  • Understand the basics principals of GPS and IMU
Readings:

Readings are identified and should be completed as you work through the lesson.

Assignments:
  1. Lesson 2 Quiz
  2. Lesson 2 Discussion Activity

 

Lesson 3: Concept of Operation (CONOP) and Risk Assessment for UAS
Date: Week 3
Objectives: At the successful completion of this lesson you should be able to:
  • Understand the concept of operation design strategy
  • Understand risk assessment
  • Design a CONOP and Risk assessment for a UAS mission
Readings:

Readings are identified and should be completed as you work through the lesson.

Assignments:
  1. Complete Lesson 3 Quiz
  2. Submit project idea
  3. Install the Pix4D software and practice on the use of Pix4D software to process the sample data.

 

Lesson 4: UAS Mission Planning and Control
Date: Week 4
Objectives: At the successful completion of this lesson you should be able to:
  • Understand basic requirements for mission planning
  • Understand sensor internal geometry
  • Describe factors affecting flight plans such as way points, product resolution and accuracy, aircraft speed, etc.
  • Practice flight planning for a UAS mission
  • Understand calibration requirements for imaging sensors and auxiliary systems
Readings: Readings are identified and should be completed as you work through the lesson.
Assignments:
  1. Lesson 4 Quiz

 

Lesson 5: Fundamentals of Unmanned Aerial System Operations
Date: Week 5
Objectives: At the successful completion of this lesson you should be able to:
  • Understand guidelines for operating a UAS
  • Describe the different classes of airspace
  • Understand the different modes of operating a UAS (LOS versus BLOS)
  • Describe the UAS personnel qualifications.
Readings: Readings are identified and should be completed as you work through the lesson.
Assignments:
  1. Lesson 5 Quiz
  2. Lesson 5 Discussion Assignment

 

Lesson 6: Aviation Regulatory and Certificate of Authorization Process (COA)
Date: Week 6
Objectives: At the successful completion of this lesson you should be able to:
  • Recognize the differences between standards and regulations
  • Describe the rules and regulations associated with operating a UAS in the United States of America
  • Interpret the FAA restrictions on operating a UAS for commercial use
  • Prepare an application for Certificate of Authorization (COA)
Readings: Readings are identified and should be completed as you work through the lesson.
Assignments:
  1. Lesson 6 Quiz
  2. Submit draft of COA application
  3. Submit final project proposal

 

Lesson 7: Products Generation
Date: Week 7
Objectives: At the successful completion of this lesson you should be able to:
  • Understand the concept of sensor and product geo-location
  • Understand the concept of direct geo-referencing
  • Understand the concept of aerial triangulation
  • Outline complete UAS data processing workflow
  • Distinguish between different products obtainable from different UAS payload sensors
Readings: Readings are identified and should be completed as you work through the lesson.
Assignments:
  1. Lesson 7 Quiz
  2. Work on final project

 

Lesson 8: Civilian and Commercial Applications of the Unmanned Aerial System
Date: Week 8
Objectives: At the successful completion of this lesson you should be able to:
  • Recognize different applications of the UAS for civilian use
  • Understand how the UAS data is used for different applications
  • Compose a list of additional applications that can be served by UAS
Readings: Readings are identified and should be completed as you work through the lesson.
Assignments:
  1. Lesson 8 Quiz
  2. Submit final project report

 

Lesson 9: Strategy for Selecting a UAS-based Geospatial Mapping System
Date: Week 9
Objectives: At the successful completion of this lesson you should be able to:
  • Understand the major considerations in selecting a UAS for geospatial business
  • Differentiate between the main providers of UAS
  • Discriminate between the main providers of  aerial sensors for UAS
  • Recognize the main providers of software for UAS data processing
  • Create mapping products such as ortho photos and digital elevation models using of the data processing software Pix4D
Readings: Readings are identified and should be completed as you work through the lesson.
Assignments:
  1. Prepare your presentation for the final project

 

Lesson 10: UAS Safety, security and Privacy Concerns and final Project Presentations
Date: Week 10
Objectives:

At the successful completion of this lesson you should have:

  • Understand major concerns surrounding UAS safety, security and privacy issues
  • Completed your final project presentation
Readings:
Assignments:
  1. Participate in the discussions forum on the subject of UAS safety, security and privacy
  2. Final project presentations.
Readings are identified and should be completed as you work through the lesson.

 


Course Policies

Late Homework

Late homework accepted under the following circumstances: (1) if prearranged with the instructor; (2) if the result of a documented emergency; or (3) if documented illness (see PARTICIPATION AND ATTENDANCE SECTION below). The exam will be a zero unless these conditions are met. Other excuses are not valid.

Academic Integrity

We will levy penalties for academic dishonesty in accordance with published College of Earth and Mineral Sciences and Penn State University policy. Please see “Policies and Rules for Students, Section 49-20” [7] and follow the links in Section 49-20 to “G-9 Academic Integrity Procedure.”

There are several ways that students could violate academic integrity policies in this course. Foremost would be plagiarizing or not submitting one's own work, be it for homework or exams. See the precedent tables [8] for the various violation categories, sanction considerations, and sanction ranges.

In this course, the first violation will result in the final course grade dropping by one full grade and the student being asked to sign the academic integrity form [9]. In those cases where students refuse to sign, I will follow the “G-9 Academic Integrity Procedure.” A second violation will result in course failure. Particularly egregious cases of academic dishonesty will result in the pursuit of an XF grade. Disciplinary action procedures are documented [10].

All course materials students receive or to which students have online access are protected by copyright laws. Students may use course materials and make copies for their own use as needed, but unauthorized distribution and/or uploading of materials without the instructor’s express permission is strictly prohibited.  University Policy AD 40, the University Policy Recording of Classroom Activities and Note Taking Services addresses this issue. Students who engage in the unauthorized distribution of copyrighted materials may be held in violation of the University’s Code of Conduct, and/or liable under Federal and State laws.

Technical Requirements

Minimum technical requirements for the MGIS program apply to personal computers used for this course.

Please read the following additional notes that apply specifically to remote sensing courses:

The instructor will use the software Pix4D for UAS data processing, if this happened then the following instructions are important:

  • Throughout this course, you will be downloading many very large files containing remote sensing data. You should have access to a reliable high-speed Internet connection for the entire semester.
  • The Pix4D requires a 64 bits computer. Make sure that you have an access to such computer as it is necessary for you to be able to process the data.
  • The course software is very memory intensive. RAM has a significant impact on performance and speed. While the program technical specs call for at least 8 GB of RAM, more is definitely better for this course. 8 GB are recommended.
  • Large amounts of data must be downloaded and saved on your local hard drive for lab exercises. You should have at least 32 GB of free space available at the beginning of this course.
  • You will need administrative rights on your computer to be able to install the software required for this course.
  • You will need to use the Mozilla Firefox browser in order for the equations to be displayed right.

The following description shows the minimum and recommended  Hardware and Software requirements for running Pix4D:

Minimum:

  • Windows Vista, 7, 8, Server 2008, Server 2012, 64 bits  ( PC or Mac computers using Boot Camp).
  • Any CPU (Intel i5/i7/Xeon recommended).
  • Small projects (under 100 images at 14MP): 4GB RAM, 10GB HDD.
  • Medium projects (between 100 and 500 images at 14MP): 8GB RAM, 250GB HDD.
  • Large projects (over 500 images at 14MP): 16GB RAM, 1TB HDD.
  • A local SSD Hard drive can speed up the processing. 

Recommended:

  • Windows Vista, 7, 8 64 bits.
  • CPU quad-core or hexa-core Intel i7/Xeon.
  • Small projects (under 100 images at 14MP): 8GB RAM, 50GB HDD.
  • Medium projects (between 100 and 500 images at 14MP): 32GB RAM, 500GB HDD.
  • Large projects (over 500 images at 14MP): 64GB RAM, 1TB HDD.

 For more information on the software/hardware requirements, visit https://support.pix4d.com/entries/26799527

Need general technical assistance?

If you need assistance with Canvas at any point during the course, please contact the World Campus Help Desk.

Need course-specific remote sensing technical assistance?

If you need technical assistance with course-specific remote sensing, image processing or GIS software at any point during the course, please contact the instructor.

Penn State E-mail Accounts

All official communications from the Penn State World Campus are sent to students' Penn State e-mail accounts. Be sure to check your Penn State account regularly, or forward your Penn State e-mail to your preferred e-mail account, so you don't miss any important information.

Academic Integrity

This course follows the guidelines for academic integrity of Penn State's College of Earth and Mineral Sciences. Penn State defines academic integrity as "the pursuit of scholarly activity in an open, honest and responsible manner." Academic integrity includes "a commitment not to engage in or tolerate acts of falsification, misrepresentation, or deception." In particular, the University defines plagiarism as "the fabrication of information and citations; submitting others' work from professional journals, books, articles, and papers; submission of other students' papers, lab results or project reports and representing the work as one's own." Penalties for violations of academic integrity may include course failure. To learn more, see Penn State's "Plagiarism Tutorial for Students."

Course Copyright

All course materials students receive or to which students have online access are protected by copyright laws. Students may use course materials and make copies for their own use as needed, but unauthorized distribution and/or uploading of materials without the instructor’s express permission is strictly prohibited. University Policy AD 40, the University Policy for the Recording of Classroom Activities and Note Taking Services addresses this issue. Students who engage in the unauthorized distribution of copyrighted materials may be held in violation of the University’s Code of Conduct, and/or liable under Federal and State laws.

Accommodations for Students with Disabilities

Penn State welcomes students with disabilities into the University's educational programs. Every Penn State campus has an office for students with disabilities. The Student Disability Resources (SDR) website provides contact information for every Penn State campus: Contacts for Disability Services at all Penn State Campuses. For further information, please visit the Student Disability Resources (SDR) website.

In order to receive consideration for reasonable accommodations, you must contact the appropriate disability services office at the campus where you are officially enrolled, participate in an intake interview, and provide documentation. If the documentation supports your request for reasonable accommodations, your campus’s disability services office will provide you with an accommodation letter. Please share this letter with your instructors and discuss the accommodations with them as early in your courses as possible. You must follow this process for every semester that you request accommodations.

Mental Health Services

Whether you study on campus or online, mental health services are available to help you maintain your academic success. Penn State provides resources to address concerns including anxiety, depression, relationship difficulties, and stress, and provides mental health advocates who can help you. If you are a resident student, resources can be found at Counseling and Psychological Services. If you are a World Campus student, please see the student website for further information. If you or someone you know is experiencing a crisis situation, please call your local emergency service.

Military Personnel

Veterans and currently serving military personnel and/or spouses with unique circumstances (e.g., upcoming deployments, drill/duty requirements, disabilities, VA appointments, etc.) are welcome and encouraged to communicate these, in advance if possible, to the instructor in the case that special arrangements need to be made.

Inclement Weather

In case of weather-related delays at the University, this online course will proceed as planned. Your instructor will inform you if there are any extenuating circumstances regarding content or activity due dates in the course due to weather delays. If you are affected by a weather-related emergency, please contact your instructor at the earliest possible time to make special arrangements.

Connect Online with Caution

Penn State is committed to educational access for all. Our students come from all walks of life and have diverse life experiences. As with any other online community, the lack of physical interaction in an online classroom can create a false sense of anonymity and security. While one can make new friends online, digital relationships can also be misleading. Good judgment and decision making are critical when choosing to disclose personal information with others whom you do not know.

Deferred Grades

If you are prevented from completing this course within the prescribed amount of time, it is possible to have the grade deferred with the concurrence of the instructor. To seek a deferred grade, you must submit a written request (by e-mail or U.S. post) to your instructor describing the reason(s) for the request. It is up to your instructor to determine whether or not you will be permitted to receive a deferred grade. If, for any reason, the course work for the deferred grade is not complete by the assigned time, a grade of "F" will be automatically entered on your transcript.

Attendance

This course will be conducted entirely online. There will be no set class meeting times, but you will be required to complete assignments with specific due dates. Many of the assignments are open for multiple days. It is your responsibility to complete the work on time, which may require you to complete the work early if you plan to travel or participate in national holidays, religious observances, or University-approved activities.

If you need to request an exception due to a personal or medical emergency, contact the instructor directly as soon as you are able. The instructor's ability to accommodate you is dependent on the earliest possible notification. Such requests will be considered on a case-by-case basis.


Disclaimer

Please note that the specifics of this Course Syllabus can be changed at any time, and you will be responsible for abiding by any such changes. All changes will be communicated with you via e-mail, course announcement and/or course discussion forum.