Lesson 1 Overview
Video: FSC 432 Lesson 1 (2:04)
Petroleum provides the largest fraction of primary energy supply in the U.S. and in the world [Figure 1.1,eia1]. Resource consumption patterns shown in Figure 1.1 reflect major epochs in human history, such as The Industrial Revolution, ushering in the rapid increase in coal consumption. Petroleum trace, for example, marks the mass production of automobiles with the introduction of Model T by Ford, world wars, supply crises of 1973 and 1979 and the economic recession in 2008. Transportation of people and goods in many parts of the world depends almost completely on petroleum fuels, such as gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and marine fuel. Apart from the fuels, materials that are necessary for operating the combustion engines of cars, trucks, planes, and trains also come from petroleum. These materials include lubricating oils (motor oils), greases, tires on the wheels of the vehicles, and asphalt to pave the roads for smooth rides in transportation vehicles. All petroleum fuels and many materials are produced by the processing of crude oil in petroleum refineries. Petroleum refineries also supply feedstock to the petrochemicals and chemical industry for producing all consumer goods from rubber and plastics (polymers) to cosmetics and medicine. Only ten percent of petroleum consumption, the portion that is not used for transportation or other energy outlets, is sufficient to manufacture all the materials used in human economy, with the exception of those derived from wood or minerals.
The petroleum industry consists of two separate operations: Upstream and Downstream Operations. Upstream operations involve exploration of new oil reserves, development of oil fields, constructing the well-head and crude oil production facilities. Downstream operations cover processing of crude oil in petroleum refineries to produce liquid and gaseous fuels and materials for the market. This course addresses petroleum refining to review how a variety of physical processes and chemical reactions in separate refinery units are integrated to process compliant fuels and materials.
By the end of this lesson, you will be able to:
- recognize the significance of petroleum fuels in the U.S. energy supply;
- express the overall objectives of petroleum refining;
- identify the economic and environmental drivers of petroleum refining;
- describe the overall approach to petroleum refining and categorize refinery processes and products;
- portray chemical constitution of petroleum.
What is due for Lesson 1?
This lesson will take us one week to complete. Please refer to the Course Syllabus for specific time frames and due dates. Specific directions for the assignments below can be found on the Assignment page within this lesson.
|Readings||J. H. Gary, G. E. Handwerk, Mark J. Kaiser, Chapter 1, pp. 1-12; Chapter 3, pp. 62-65|
|Assignments||For your information, review the most recent supply of petroleum fuels from the data given at U.S. Energy Information Administration (eia.gov) and research how petroleum refining addresses the environmental concerns from the combustion of petroleum fuels in internal combustion engines.|
If you have any questions, please post them to our Help Discussion (not email), located in Canvas. I will check that discussion forum daily to respond. While you are there, feel free to post your own responses if you, too, are able to help out a classmate.