We see that divergence is positive when the parcel area grows and is negative when it shrinks. We call growth “divergence” and shrinking “convergence.” We wish to know whether air parcels come together (converge) or spread apart (diverge) or if the parcel area increases with time (divergence) or decreases with time (convergence).

Let’s see how divergence in the horizontal two dimensions is related to area change. We can do a similar analysis that relates divergence in three dimensions to a volume change, but we will stay with the two-dimensional case because it is easier to visualize and also has important applications. Consider a box with dimensions *Δx* and *Δy*. Different parts of the box are moving at different velocities (see figure below).

The box's area, *A*, is given by:

$$\begin{array}{l}A=\Delta x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\Delta y\hfill \\ \frac{dA}{dt}=\frac{d(\Delta x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\Delta y)}{dt}=\Delta x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{d(\Delta y)}{dt}+\Delta y\frac{d(\Delta x\text{\hspace{0.17em}})}{dt}=\hfill \\ \text{\hspace{1em}}\text{\hspace{1em}}\text{\hspace{1em}}\Delta x\left[v(y+\Delta y)-v(y)\right]+\Delta y\left[u(x+\Delta x)-u(x)\right]\hfill \\ \hfill \\ \text{divideby}A\text{=}\Delta x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\Delta y\hfill \\ \hfill \\ \frac{1}{A}\frac{dA}{dt}=\frac{v(y+\Delta y)-v(y)}{\Delta y}+\frac{u(x+\Delta x)-u(x)}{\Delta x}\hfill \\ \hfill \\ \text{Let}\Delta y\to \text{0,}\Delta x\to \text{0}\hfill \\ \hfill \\ \frac{1}{A}\frac{dA}{dt}=\frac{\partial u}{\partial x}+\frac{\partial v}{\partial y}={\overrightarrow{\nabla}}_{H}\u2022{\overrightarrow{U}}_{H}\hfill \end{array}$$

So we see that the fractional change in the area is equal to the horizontal divergence. Note that the dimension of divergence is time^{–1} and the SI unit is s^{–1}.

We can do this same analysis for motion in three dimensions to get the equation:

$$\frac{1}{V}\frac{dV}{dt}=\frac{\partial u}{\partial x}+\frac{\partial v}{\partial y}+\frac{\partial w}{\partial z}={\overrightarrow{\nabla}}_{H}\xb7{\overrightarrow{U}}_{H}+\frac{\partial w}{\partial z}=\overrightarrow{\nabla}\xb7\overrightarrow{U}$$

where *V* is the parcel volume. Thus, the 3-D divergence is just the fractional rate of change of an air parcel’s volume.

#### Check Your Understanding

Suppose that an air parcel has an area of 10,000 km^{2} and it is growing by 1 km^{2} each second. What is its divergence?

**Click for answer.**

$\frac{\Delta A}{\Delta t}=1{\text{km}}^{2}{\text{s}}^{-1}$ , so $\left(\frac{1}{A}\right)\left(\frac{\Delta A}{\Delta t}\right)=\left(\frac{1}{{10}^{4}}{\text{km}}^{2}\right)\left(1{\text{km}}^{2}{\text{s}}^{-1}\right)={10}^{-4}{\text{s}}^{-1}$ .

Suppose that an air parcel has a area of 10,000 km^{2} and has a divergence of –10^{–4} s^{–1}. Is the air parcel growing or shrinking?

**Click for answer.**

$\text{divergence=}\delta =\left(\frac{1}{A}\right)\left(\frac{\Delta A}{\Delta t}\right)$ , or $\frac{\Delta A}{A}=\delta \Delta t=\left(-{10}^{-4}{\text{s}}^{-1}\right)\left(1\text{s}\right)=-{10}^{-4}$ . The air parcel is shrinking.

Check out this video (1:33) for further explanation:

#### Quiz 9-1: The way the wind blows.

- Find
**Practice Quiz 9-1**in Canvas. You may complete this practice quiz as many times as you want. It is not graded, but it allows you to check your level of preparedness before taking the graded quiz. - When you feel you are ready, take
**Quiz 9-1**. You will be allowed to take this quiz only**once**. Good luck!