GEOG 497
3D Modeling and Virtual Reality

Summary and Tasks Reminder


Summary and Tasks Reminder

We would like to acknowledge that we have by now given you a quite intense tour through various modeling approaches. It is, however, important to have at least an overview of what is currently available as the project you may be working on in the future (past this course) may require you to design a custom made solution. In addition to various workflows including structure from motion mapping and hand-on modeling that we explored previously, this lesson focused more deeply on procedural modeling and its origins in theories of shape grammar. Procedural modeling is a wonderful tool to both explore the organization of built environments in theory but also, more recently, as a powerful tool to make modeling more efficient. ESRI has realized this potential and bought City Engine which was founded at the ETH Zurich (their technical university). Keeping the different approaches in mind it important as we move on in the course.

Reminder - Complete all of the Lesson 4 tasks!

You have reached the end of Lesson 4! Double-check the to-do list on the Lesson 4 Overview page to make sure you have completed all of the activities listed there before you begin Lesson 5.


Duarte, J.P.; Beirão, J.N. Towards a methodology for flexible urban design: designing with urban patterns and shape grammars, in Environment and Planning B: planning and design. Vol. 38 (5) 2012, pp. 879-902.

Knight, T. W. (1989). Shape Grammars in Education and Practice: History and Prospects, Internet Paper:

Stiny, G., & Gips, J. (1971, August). Shape Grammars and the Generative Specification of Painting and Sculpture. In IFIP Congress (2) (Vol. 2, No. 3).

Stiny, G. (1980). Introduction to shape and shape grammars. Environment and Planning B, 7(3), 343-351.