Video: FSC 432 Lesson 8 (7:52)
Among the catalytic conversion processes developed just before and during the Second World War are included, in addition to catalytic cracking, polymerization processes that were introduced in the mid- to late 1930s, and alkylation and isomerization processes that were developed in the early 1940s. The principal impetus for developing these processes was to meet the demand for high-octane-number gasoline required by the high compression gasoline engines, including those used in the aircraft. Catalytic reforming and catalytic isomerization were developed in the 1950s to increase the high-octane-number gasoline yields from refineries. These processes are still important in current refineries that are directed to maximize gasoline yield from the crude oil feedstock. By-products from some of these processes, such as LPG and hydrogen, have gained significance because of the increasing demand in modern refineries for LPG recently used as automobile fuel and for hydrogen to supply the increasing demand for hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes.
By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
- locate the catalytic reforming process in the refinery flow diagram, summarize the process objectives and evaluate the chemical reactions that take place in catalytic reforming to realize the process objectives;
- identify the catalysts used for catalytic reforming, evaluate the reaction network and the activity of catalysts, and illustrate the desirable reactions with specific examples;
- outline the principles of thermodynamics, kinetics, and transport phenomena to formulate limits on reaction conditions for controlling desirable and undesirable reactions in catalytic reforming;
- assess the commercial catalytic reforming processes and compare catalyst regeneration practice in each process;
- place the alkylation process in the refinery flow diagram particularly in relation to FCC process and describe the purpose of alkylation;
- demonstrate alkylation reaction mechanisms and evaluate the use of concentrated acid catalysis of alkylation;
- demonstrate polymerization reaction mechanisms and compare alkylation and polymerization reactions and catalysis.
What is due for Lesson 8?
This lesson will take us one week to complete. Please refer to the Course Syllabus for specific time frames and due dates. Specific directions for the assignments below can be found on the Assignments page within this lesson.
|J. H. Gary, G. E. Handwerk, Mark J. Kaiser, Chapters 10 (Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization)and 11(Alkylation and Polymerization)
If you have any questions, please post them to our Help Discussion (not email), located in Canvas. I will check that discussion forum daily to respond. While you are there, feel free to post your own responses if you, too, are able to help out a classmate.