Food and the Future Environment

Summary and Final Tasks



Scientists have identified and continue to study and develop strategies to reduce the impact of pests in agriculture. Pest species that are subject to one or few pest control practices over time inevitably develop resistance to the strong selective force. Multiple biological factors and ecological processes, however, influence host-pest population interactions, providing many opportunities to combine pest control tactics and identify new pest control approaches. Climate change will also pose new pest challenges. Some of these challenges are discussed in the online resource that you read parts of in Modules 4 and 5. We highly encourage you to read this a short summary of some of the research on Climate Change Impacts in the United States. See Section title: Key Message 2: Weeds, Diseases, and Pests.

Reminder - Complete all of the Module 8 tasks!

You have reached the end of Module 8! Double-check the to-do list on the Module 8 Roadmap to make sure you have completed all of the activities listed.

References and Further Reading

Benbrook. C. 2014. Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S. -- the first sixteen years. Environmental Sciences Europe 2012, 24:24. doi:10.1186/2190-4715-24-24

Duke. O. S. and S. B. Powles. 2009. Glyphosate-Resistant Crops and Weeds: Now and in the Future AgBioForum, 12(3&4): 346-357

Gassmann A.J., Petzold-Maxwell J.L., Keweshan R.S., Dunbar M.W. 2011. Field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm. PLoS One. 2011:6(7):e22629. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022629. E pub 2011 Jul 29.

Gassman, A. J. 2016. Resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm: insights from the laboratory and the field. Current Opinion in Insect Science. 15: 111-115.

Georghiou. G. P. 1986. The Magnitude of the Resistance Problem. Chapt 1. 14-44. In Pesticide Resistance: Strategies for the Management. Eds. Committee on of Pest Populations; Board of Agriculture, National Research Council.

Gunsolus, L. J. Weed Science, Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics. Herbicide-resistant weeds

International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds

Jakka, S. R. K., R.B. Shrestha, and A. J. Gassmann. 2016. Broad-specture resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins by western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera vergifera). Scientific Reports. 6:27860. doi:10.1038/srep27860.

Liebman, M. and E. R. Gallandt. 1997. Many little hammers: ecological management of crop-weed interactions. Pages 291–343 in L. E. Jack- son, ed. Ecology in Agriculture. San Diego, CA: Academic.

Odum, E. P. 1997. Ecology: A Bridge Between Science and Society. Snauer Associates: Sunderland, MA.

Stern, V. M., Smith, R. F., van den Bosch, K. & Ragen, K. S. 1959. The integration of chemical and biological control of the spotted alfalfa aphid: the integrated control concept. Hilgardia 29:81-101.

Tabashnik B., Brevault, T., Carriere, Y. 2013. Insect resistance to Bt crops: lessons from the first billion acres. Nature Biotechnology 31: 510-521.

Additional Reading:

  1. FAO UN More About IPM
  2. Cornell University’s Pesticide Safety Education Program (PSEP) Part of the Pesticide Management Education
  3. Cullen, E., and R. Proost, D. Volenberg. 2008. Insect Resistance Managment and Refuge Requirements for Bt Corn. University of Wisconsin Extension. Pest and Nutrient Management Program.