EME 444
Global Energy Enterprise

Natural Gas Demand and Uses

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Demand

Worldwide 2014 % natural gas usage: N. America-26, Asia & Oceania-20, Eurasia-18, Europe-15, M. East-12, C. & S. America-5, Africa-4
Figure 7.9 Worldwide usage of Natural gas, 2014 (the most recent year data are available)
(Original data and interactive chart)
Credit: D. Kasper.  Data from EIA International Energy Statistics.
Click link to expand for a text description of Figure 7.9
World natural gas consumption, 2014
region Consumption (billion cubic tons Percent of total
North America 33,279 26%
Asia & Oceana 24,737 20%
Eurasia 21,426 18%
Europe 16,769 15%
MIddle East 16,098 12%
Central & South America 5,806 5%
Africa 4,689 4%

According to the Energy Information Administration, the world consumed 122,804 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas in 2014. The chart above depicts how this consumption was distributed worldwide. Overall, in 2014, a little over 21% of the world's energy consumption was from natural gas, according to the International Energy Association's 2017 "Key World Statistics" publication.

Regarding future demand, in International Energy Outlook 2016, the Energy Information Administration reports,

By energy source, natural gas accounts for the largest increase in world primary energy consumption...Natural gas remains a key fuel in the electric power sector and industrial sector. In the power sector, natural gas is an attractive choice for new generating plants because of its fuel efficiency. Natural gas also burns cleaner than coal or petroleum products, and as more governments begin implementing national or regional plans to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, they may encourage the use of natural gas to displace more carbon-intensive coal and liquid fuels...Consumption of natural gas increases in every IEO region..

As you might guess (and may recall reading previously), as natural gas becomes a more popular fuel source worldwide, international trade will also increase. As you can see, the U.S., Russia, and China will play major roles in this. As stated in the IEO 2017,

  • China’s imports of natural gas remain at 32% of supply in 2015 and 2040 as the country’s domestic shale gas production grows from 2% in 2015 to 33% over the same period...
  • Russian exports account for a growing share of China’s pipeline imports as pipeline capacity expands. China’s LNG imports are also projected to grow—supplied by an increasingly diversified pool of exporters...
  • World liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade is projected to nearly triple, from 12 trillion cubic feet to 31 trillion cubic feet, between 2015 and 2040.
  • Europe is projected to remain largely dependent on Russian pipeline gas, while Asia is projected to import a large share of the traded LNG.
  • North America is projected to become a major exporter of natural gas by 2020, even though flows from Russia to Europe and Asia are expected to show the largest volumetric growth in trade.

Uses

Natural gas is used in many ways, including power generation, residential heating and appliances (cooking, clothes dryers) and in the production of many products.

According to the U.S. EIA, in the United States, about 29% of all the energy we used came from natural gas in 2015. About 35% of the natural gas we used was for electricity generation (up from 30% in 2014). Another 33% was used for industrial and commercial purposes, and about 17% was used in homes, while 12% was used in commercial buildings. Only 3% was used for transportation.

Natural gas can be used in a several different ways to generate electricity--it may be burned to create steam that turns a turbine (similar to a coal-fired plant) or may be used with a gas turbine where hot gases from the burning gas turn the turbine (instead of heating steam). Gas turbines may be turned on and off quickly, making them well suited to meet peak load demands. Gas turbines are also used in combined cycle units, where the waste heat from the gas turbine is used to create steam and drive a turbine. These arrangements are much more efficient than steam or gas turbines alone - many combined cycle units approach 60% efficiency, compared to just over 30% for coal and nuclear. Because of its widespread availability and other advantages, natural gas is used for distributed generation--where electricity is generated at or very near the point of use, often a commercial or industrial site.

Natural gas is also used to produce steel, glass, paper, clothing, and brick. Many products use natural gas as a raw material, such as paints, fertilizer, plastics, antifreeze, dyes, photographic film, medicines, and explosives.

In the United States, more than half of the homes use natural gas as their main heating fuel. In our homes we also use it for cooking, water heaters, clothes dryers, and other appliances.

Hydrogen Production

Instructor with hydrogen-powered van

placard describing components of hydrogen-powered engine

Hydrogen-powered van from Air Products. With worldwide headquarters in Allentown, PA, the company is a leading producer and distributor of atmospheric and specialty gases, including hydrogen. (Yeppers, that's the Program Administrator of the Energy and Sustainability Policy Program, looking awkward--then took a spin, wow, incredible instant power and all quiet.)
Credit: Photos taken at 2010 Pennsylvania Renewable Energy and Sustainable Living Festival. Copyright ©2011 Vera Cole. Used with permission.

Natural gas is also used in the production of hydrogen to power fuel cells. [A fuel cell converts chemical energy of a fuel (usually hydrogen) and an oxidant into electricity. If you're interested, visit the DOE's fuel Cells.]

Remember that natural gas is mostly methane and that methane is CH4? Ah ha, makes sense! Hydrogen is produced from natural gas through a type of thermal process called natural gas reforming.

To Read Now

Visit the Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program. Click on "Hydrogen Production," then under the "How Hydrogen Production Works" heading, click on the link that is linked to the phrase "domestic resources." Open and read "Natural gas reforming." (And of course, you are encouraged to poke around more on this nifty topic, if you have the time and interest.)

Compressed Natural Gas

In addition to its gas and liquid states, natural gas may also be compressed to be used as a fuel for vehicles. According to NGV Global, there were over 24 million Natural Gas Vehicles (NGVs) operating worldwide by August of 2017, including motorcycles, cars, vans, light and heavy duty trucks, buses, lift trucks, locomotives, even ships and ferries. From 1996 to 2016, the number of NGVs has grown by over 2800%! (850,445 vehicles in 1996 and 24,452,517 vehicles in 2016, according to NGV Global.) As you can see in the image below, global growth is driven by the Asia-Pacific region and to a lesser extent Latin America.

Natural gas vehicle use by region, 1996 - 2016.Growth in Asian-Pacific & Latin American regions.Trends further discussed in surrounding text
Figure 7.10 Natural Gas Vehicles by Region 1996 - 2016.
Credit: NGV Global.

In the United States, however, at 160,000 in 2017 the number of NGVs is small and increasing slowly. Vehicles fueled by natural gas get fewer miles on a tank of fuel and, here, refueling stations are not widely available and new CNG-fueled vehicles are limited. According to the U.S. DOE, the 2016 Chevrolet Impala Bi-Fuel (CNG) is the only new vehicle currently available in the U.S. However, conventional gasoline, and diesel vehicles can be retrofitted for CNG.

When biogas (produced from decomposing organic matter) is processed to purity standards, it is a renewable natural gas (RNG) that can substitute for natural gas as an alternative fuel for natural gas vehicles. In fact, according to the U.S. DOE, "about 60% of the gas used in Sweden's 38,500 natural gas vehicles is RNG. In Germany, 25% of the public compressed natural gas stations dispense 100% RNG. In the United States, biomethane vehicle activities are on a smaller scale."