Now that you've seen QGIS and OGR in action with vector data, you'll get some experience processing raster data. For this exercise, we're going to start with a 30-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) for Philadelphia. I obtained this from the USGS National Map Viewer. We'll use a combination of GDAL tools (some of them wrapped in a nice QGIS GUI) to make a nice-looking terrain background for a basemap. This will be accomplished by adding a DEM, a hillshade, and a shaded slope layer together. I have based these instructions on this tutorial by Mapbox that I encourage you to read later if you would like further detail.
Extract the data to a folder named PhiladelphiaElevation, such as c:\data\PhiladelphiaElevation. This will contain a single dataset called dem. In the interest of saving time and minimizing the download size, I have already clipped this dataset to the Philadelphia city boundary and projected it to EPSG:3857 for you. If you need to do this kind of thing in the future, you can use the Raster > Projections > Warp command in QGIS, which invokes the gdalwarp command.
- Launch QGIS and use the Add Raster Layer button to add dem to your map.
Don't add any vector layers right now. See the note at the end of this walkthrough if you are eventually interested in overlaying shapefiles with your terrain.
- Create a hillshade by selecting dem in the table of contents and clicking Raster > Terrain Analysis > Hillshade (or Raster > Analysis > Hillshade in QGIS 3). Save the hillshade as a GeoTIFF named hillshade, and leave the default parameters as shown in the image below. In QGIS 3, some of the defaults and parameter orders are a bit different, but it's the same idea. The biggest difference is that you must choose Save to File and use the TIF format (there is no GeoTIFF option):
- Create a slope surface by highlighting your dem layer in the table of contents and clicking Raster > Terrain Analysis > Slope (or Raster > Analysis > Slope in QGIS 3). Save it as a TIF or GeoTIFF named slope and keep the rest of the defaults. Each pixel in this surface has a value between 0 and 90 indicating the degree of slope in a particular cell.
Now let's shade the slope to provide an extra measure of relief to the hillshade when we combine the two as partially transparent layers.
- Create a new text file containing just the following lines, then save it in your PhiladelphiaElevation folder as sloperamp.txt.
0 255 255 255 90 0 0 0This creates a very simple color ramp that will shade your slope layer in grayscale with values toward 0 being lighter and values toward 90 being darker. When combined with the hillshade, this layer will cause shelfs and cliffs to pop out in your map.
- Open your OSGeo4W command line window and use the cd command to change the working directory to your PhiladelphiaElevation folder.
- Run the following command to apply the color ramp to your slope:
gdaldem color-relief slope.tif sloperamp.txt slopeshade.tifYou just ran the gdaldem utility, which does all kinds of things with elevation rasters. In particular, the color-relief command colorizes a raster using the following three parameters (in order): The input raster name, a text file defining the color ramp, and the output file name.
If you add the resulting slopeshade.tif layer to QGIS, you should see this:
- Create a new text file and add the following lines (make sure your software doesn't copy it as one big line; there should be line breaks in the same places you see them here). Then save it in your PhiladelphiaElevation folder as demramp.txt.
1 46 154 88 100 251 255 128 1000 224 108 31 2000 200 55 55 3000 215 244 244Note that the first value in the line is the elevation value of the raster, and the next three values constitute an RGB color definition for cells of that elevation. This particular ramp contains elevations well beyond those seen in Philadelphia, just so you can get an idea of how these ramps are created. I have adjusted the ramp so that lowlands are green and the hilliest areas of Philadelphia are yellow. If we had high mountains in our DEM, brown and other colors would begin to appear.
- Run the following command:
gdaldem color-relief dem.tif demramp.txt demcolor.tifWhen you add demcolor.tif to QGIS, you should see something like this:
- In QGIS, click Raster > Extraction > Clipper and set up the parameters as below. Make sure you clip demcolor to the city_limits.shp polygon from the previous walkthrough (it should be in PhiladelphiaBaseLayers\clipFeature). Notice that at the bottom of this dialog box, the full gdalwarp syntax (used for clipping) appears in case you ever want to run this action from the command line. This can be a helpful learning tool! Make sure your output file name ends in ".tif" so that the -of GTiff option is added to the gdalwarp command.
In QGIS 3 the tool has changed name to Clip raster by mask layer, but the parameters are different and I have not been able to figure out how to get this tool to work in quite the same way. One workaround is to go back into your OSGEO4W command line and type the gdalwarp command exactly as you see it in the box below.
Now, let's add these together.
- Create a new map in QGIS and add the clipped colorized DEM. Then add the hillshade with a 60% transparency (which translates to 40% opacity in QGIS 3). Then add the slopeshade with the 60% transparency. You should get something like below:
This type of terrain layer, when overlayed by a few other vector layers, could act as a suitable basemap layer in a web map. In a future lesson, you'll learn how you could create tiles of this type of layer to bring into your web map.
Note for older versions of QGIS: If you try adding any of your vector shapefiles to this map right now, they may be off by about 20 km unless - as described in the previous walkthrough - you provide a QPJ file for each shapefile containing more information about the EPSG:3857 projection you are using. This file always contains the same content, but it must have the same root name as the shapefile and must be placed in the same directory as the shapefile. Here is an example for the atms shapefile called atms.qpj that you could copy and rename for any of your vector shapefiles that you wanted to add to the map.
Saving the data for future use
Just like in the previous walkthrough, you will copy your final datasets into your main Philadelphia data folder for future use.
Use Windows Explorer or an equivalent program to copy hillshade.tif, slopeshade.tif, and demcolorclipped.tif into the Philadelphia folder (such as c:\data\Philadelphia) that you created in the previous walkthrough.