The Nature of Geographic Information

14. Bibliography

Charlotte-Mecklenberg Public Schools (n. d.). Retrieved July 19, 1999, from
Cooke, D. F. (1997). Topology and TIGER: The Census Bureau's Contribution. In T. W. Foresman (Ed.), The history of geographic information systems: Perspectives from the pioneers. (pp. 47 - 57). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dangermond, J. (1982). A Classification of Software Components Commonly Used in Geographic Information Systems. In Proceedings of the U.S.—Australia Workshop on the Design and Implementation of Computer-Based Geographic Information Systems, Honolulu, HI, pp. 0-91. In Demers, M.N. (1997) Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Discreet Research (n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 1999, from (since retired).
ESRI (1998) Shapefile Technical Description, An ESRI White paper. Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Retrieved October 4, 2010, from
Federal Geographic Data Committee (April 2006). Retrieved July 19, 1999, from
Framingham Public Schools (1998). Racial balance policy: Assignment of students to schools. Retrieved July 19, 1999, from (since retired).
Francica, J. (n.d.). Geodezix Consulting. Retrieved July 19, 1999, from (since retired).
Galdi, D. (2005). Spatial Data Storage and Topology in the Redesigned MAF/TIGER System. Retrieved 19 October 2010, from (since retired).
MapQuest (n.d. a). Retrieved July 19, 1998, from
MapQuest (n.d. b). Retrieved January 15, 2013, from
Marx, R. M. (Ed.). (1990). The Census Bureau's TIGER system. [Special issue]. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems 17:1.
Navigation Technologies Inc. (2006). Welcome to NavTech. Retrieved July 19, 1999, from
Rammage, S. and P. Woodsford (2002). The Benefits of Topoplogy in the Database. Retrieved October 6, 2010, from
TeleAtlas (2006). Welcome to TeleAtlas. Retrieved May 3, 2006, from (since retired).
Theobald, D. M. (2001). Understanding Topology and Shapefiles. ArcUser April-June 2001. Retrieved October 5, 2010, from
U.S. Census Bureau (1997). TIGER/Line Files (1997 Technical Documentation). Retrieved January 2, 1999, from (since retired).
U.S. Census Bureau (2003). TIGER/Line Files, 2003 (metadata). Retrieved June 17, 2015, from
U.S. Census Bureau (n. d.). 21st Century MAF/TIGER Enhancements. Retrieved February 3, 2008, from (since retired).
U.S. Census Bureau (2004). MAF/TIGER Redesign Project Overview. Retrieved October 19, 2010, from (since retired).
U.S. Census Bureau (2005). Geography division map gallery. Retrieved July 19, 1999, from (since retired).
U.S. Census Bureau (2012). TIGER/Line Shapefiles Technical Documentation. Retrieved June, 2013, from (since retired).