Geology of the National Parks

Welcome to Unit 7


Glaciers, Ice, & Permafrost—Yosemite, Glacier, & Bear Meadows

See caption.
Musk oxen on the tundra in Jameson Land, Greenland
Credit: R.B. Alley

Although not quite as large as minivans, musk oxen have better acceleration and cornering. This picture shows musk oxen thundering across the tundra of east Greenland. If you had been in central Pennsylvania's Bear Meadows with a camera 20,000 years ago, you might have taken this picture--tundra and musk oxen very similar to these existed in Pennsylvania and adjacent states back then, while an ice sheet even bigger than modern Greenland's loomed just to the north. How do we know that the ice came and went, and what caused the changes? Look both ways for musk oxen or minivans, depending on where and when you are, and let's go see.

What to do for Unit 7?

You will have one week to complete Unit 7. See the course calendar for specific due dates.

As you work your way through the online materials for Unit 7, you will encounter a video lecture, several vTrips, some animated diagrams (called GeoMations and GeoClips), additional reading assignments, a practice quiz, a "RockOn" quiz, and a "StudentsSpeak" Survey. The chart below provides an overview of the requirements for this unit.

Overview of Unit 7 Requirements



Read/view all of the Instructional Materials No, but you will be tested on all of the material found in the Unit 7 Instructional Materials.
Submit Exercise #3: The Age of Nittany Valley. Yes, this is the third of 6 Exercises and is worth 5% of your total grade.
Begin Exercise #4: Which Way is Up? Yes, this is the fourth of 6 Exercises and is worth 5% of your total grade.
Take the Unit 7 "RockOn" quiz. Yes, this is the seventh of 12 end-of-unit RockOn quizzes and is worth 4.5% of your total grade.
Complete the "StudentsSpeak #8" survey. Yes, this is the eighth of 12 weekly surveys and is worth 1% of your total grade.


If you have any questions, please feel free to email "All Teachers" and "All Teaching Assistants" through Canvas conversations.

Keep Reading!

On the following pages, you will find all of the information you need to successfully complete Unit 7, including the online textbook, a video lecture, several vTrips and animations, and an overview presentation

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Students who register for this Penn State course gain access to assignment and instructor feedback, and earn academic credit. Information about registering for this course is available from the Office of the University Registrar.