Penn StateNASA

Module Summary and Final Tasks


End of Module Recap:

In this module you should have grasped the following concepts:

  1. Techniques used to study the oceans and their properties.
  2. Distribution of the major properties (temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients) of surface and deep water and the processes that control them.
  3. The drivers of surface ocean circulation and how it impacts climate.
  4. The drivers of deep ocean circulation and the dominant deep water masses.
  5. Upwelling and downwelling and how they impact ocean properties.
  6. El Nino Southern Oscillation and how it impacts global weather patterns.
  7. The global conveyor belt.
  8. Likely changes in the ocean circulation in the future and how they will impact climate.


You should have completed the following labs and reading assignments for this module. If you have not done so already, please do so before moving onto the next module. Incomplete assignments will negatively impact your final grade.


  • Lab 5: Ocean Properties & Circulation