Penn State NASA

Module Summary and Final Tasks


Module Summary and Final Tasks

End of Module Recap

In this module, you should have mastered the following concepts:

  • Geological materials offer valuable archives of ancient climate.
  • This record can be deciphered using proxies for climate including stable isotopes, fossils, and leaf margin analysis.
  • Rapid change between cold and warm climate occurred during a number of intervals in the Earth's past including the Quaternary (0-2 million years ago), the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (55 million years ago), and the Snowball Earth (0.64-2.2 billion years ago).
  • These events have the potential to inform us about changes to come including the impact of climate change on environments including the ocean and on life, and the processes that terminate warming events.


You should have read the contents of this module carefully, completed and submitted any labs, taken the Module Quiz and added your entry and reply in the Yellowdig discussion. If you have not done so already, please do so before moving on to the next module. Incomplete assignments will negatively impact your final grade.


  • Lab 1: PETM